COMPONENTS OF FOOD Chapter 2 Class 6 (C.B.S.E.)



Understanding ConceptsFood, Functions of Food, Components of Food and their functions, Obesity, Balanced Diet, Deficiency Diseases

Introduction-Food is the basic requirement of all living organisms. We eat different kinds of food. Some foods provide us energy, some food provide us energy to work, some food help in development and maintenance of body while some others keep us healthy and strong. Food provides different kinds of nutrients. By eating different varieties of food, we get different kinds of nutrients. The food on which daily energy and nutrients requirements of a person / organism depends is called diet.

Functions of Food-Following are the functions of food-
1.       Food give us energy to do various activities
2.       Food helps us for the growth and development of our body.
3.       Food provides various nutrients for maintenance of body.
4.       Food helps in repair of injury and cut, replacing dead tissue and healing of wounds.
5.       Food helps to fight against germ (pathogens) and protect us from diseases.
6.       A balanced and healthy food makes us healthy and strong.
Components of Food-In different parts of the world different kinds of food are eaten. The main food eaten in any region is called staple food. e.g.- Rice, wheat flour (Atta), pearl millet (bajra), potato and pulses are the staple foods of India. The climatic conditions and prevailing food habits decide the type of crops cultivated in any region.


The dish (prepared food) contains one or more ingredients. The essential things called nutrients are found in the food. The nutrients are of two types-

(a)    Micro-nutrients-

(b)   Macro-nutrients-

Micro-nutrients are required in fewer amounts while macro-nutrients are required in more amounts. These nutrients belong to seven categories- carbohydrate, protein, fats (lipids), vitamins, minerals, dietary fibers and water.
1.   Carbohydrate– They give energy by undergoing digestion and then by oxidation inside the cells. Glucose, a carbohydrate is formed during photosynthesis in plants. Glucose changes to starch (a complex carbohydrate) in plants.  Carbohydrates are sweet in taste. The carbohydrate is found in potato, rice, wheat, sugar, sweet fruits etc. Carbohydrate turns bluish- black in colour on testing with iodine.
2.    Protein- Proteins are body building components of food. They help in formation of new cells. They help in repair of injured cells, growth and development of body.  Proteins are of different types. On adding 10 drops of sodium hydroxide and 2 drops of Copper (II) sulphate the sample of protein changes to bluish- violet colour. This is called Biuret test of protein.  Protein is found in – milk, eggs, fish, meat, soya bean, grams, peas, lentils, beans, etc. Milk is called complete food. It gives carbohydrate, protein, fat, calcium and phosphorus like minerals.


Functions-Protein helps in growth and development of the body. Protein is helpful for nails, hairs, skin and muscles. Proteins help in repair of injured cells. In Red blood cells protein is found.
3.  Fats (Lipids)-They are richest source of energy as compared to carbohydrates. Excess fat is stored in our body and gives energy as per requirement. Polar bears, walrus and whale especially store fats in their body. Fats in liquid state are called lipids. Fats add flavor to food along with spices. When the fatty or oily substance like poori, pakauri, chips etc.  is taken in the white paper, some greasy spots can be seen.
Functions- Fats give highest energy on oxidation in the cells. Fats keep the body warm by making a thermal insulator layer below the skin. So, the loss of heat of the body is negligible. The deposition of fat as a layer below the skin protect from jerks.
4.  Vitamins-Vitamins are essential for the protection of body from diseases. They are required in trace amount. Deficiency diseases are caused due to lack of vitamins. e. g-Anemia, Rickets, Scurvy etc. Vitamins are mainly found in fruits and vegetables. Vitamins are also found in cereals, milk, honey, egg, fish, meat, pulses and sprouts. Vitamins are taken from outside our body but in the sunlight our body can prepare vitamin D.
On the basis of their solubility, there are two types of vitamins-
(i) Fat soluble vitamins– They are easily absorbed by the body fats. e.g.- Vitamin- A, D, E, and K.
(ii) Water soluble vitamins– They dissolve in water. Excess amount of these kinds of vitamins are removed from the body through urine. e.g.- Vitamin B Complex and Vitamin C. 
(A). Vitamin A helps in keeping eyes and skin healthy, normal growth, and prevent from infections.
(B). Vitamin B-Complex (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6 and B12) help in normal digestion of carbohydrate, protein and fats. They help in normal growth and nervous tissue functions.  Vitamin B12 prevents from anemia.
(C). Vitamin C-It, chemical name is ascorbic acid. It is useful for skin, teeth, gums, bones, immunity development and formation of red blood cells. Indian gooseberry (Amla) (Phyllanthus emblica or Emblica officinalis) is the richest source of vitamin C. Citrus fruits like –lemon, orange, turmeric, tomato, oranges, melons vegetables etc. are good sources of vitamin C.
(D). Vitamin D- It’s chemical name is calciferol. It helps in absorption of calcium to teeth and bones. Sunlight helps in formation of Vitamin D in our body.
     (E). Vitamin E- It’s deficiency causes infertility. It helps in protecting eyesight, glowing skin, boosting immunity, reduces chance of heart problems and cancer. It is found in vegetables, fruits, sprouts and edible oils.
      (K). Vitamin K- It helps in blood clotting during injury. It is found in cereals, groundnuts, potatoes, meat, fish and chicken.
5.  Mineral-salts- Mineral salts are essentially required in trace amount. About 20 types of mineral-salts are required by our body. Mineral-salts help in proper growth, development and maintenance of the body. e.g.-Calcium (Ca)-it is essential for bones teeth and blood clotting. It is found in milk, milk products, vegetables, fruits, meat etc.
     e.g.-Iodine (I)- is necessary for normal growth of mind and body. It is necessary for thyroxin hormone formation by thyroid gland. Iodine is found in iodized salt, ocean fish, water, eggs, pineapple, tomato, spinaches, papaya etc.


e.g.-Iron (Fe)- It is an essential part of hemoglobin found in red blood  cells that help in carrying oxygen in our body. Iron is found in apple, papaya, sugarcane juice, jaggery, vegetables, spinach, meat, chicken, fish etc.

  Other important minerals are phosphorus, manganese, sodium, potassium etc.
6.  Dietary fibres (Roughages)-They are fibres present in the food. They do not provide any energy but help in cleaning the alimentary canal of the body. Plant based foods like vegetables, fruits, cereals, pulses, potatoes etc. provide dietary fibres. Dietary fibres helps in digestion by bowel movement, do not cause constipation, control blood sugar level, reduce cholesterol level and retain water in the body.
7. Water- About 70 % of our body is made up of water. Water is  necessary for metabolic activities and fulfills mineral-salts requirements. Water regulates the body temperature. The excess salts, urine and waste materials are removed from the body due to water. It dilutes the blood and help in transportation of nutrients.
Obesity- Overeating and not doing exercise, enough work causes obesity. Persons suffering from obesity are called obese. Obesity   makes the person unhealthy and unfit to do work efficiently. Food calories should be taken in required amount and must be burnt to reduce over weight.
Balanced Diet-A diet that contains carbohydrate, protein, fats, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibres (roughages) in required proportion is called a balanced diet.
Balanced diet is necessary for growth, development and maintenance of good health. The energy present in the food is measured in calories. Every kind of food has some calories. We should take calories as per our age and nature of work we do.
Deficiency Diseases– Those diseases which are caused due to lack of taking of essential nutrients, vitamins, minerals in the food for long time are called deficiency diseases. Deficiency diseases can be lethal. Taking of balanced diet prevents deficiency diseases. e.g.- Kwashiorkor, Marasmus, Anemia, Rickets, Scurvy, Night blindness, Goiter , Beriberi etc.
Vitamin/ Mineral
Deficiency disease/disorder
Vitamin A
Loss of vision
Loss of vision, Less vision, night blindness
Vitamin B1
Less energy, Weak muscles
Vitamin C
Less healing of wound, bleeding gum
Vitamin D
Soft bones and bending
Bone and Tooth Decay
Weak bones ,Tooth decay
Mental weakness, Swollen neck
Fatigue, Breathlessness
1. Prepare a group project on healthy eating habits.
2. Prepare a diet chart for- a baby, an adolescent boy, an adolescent girl, an adult person and an old person.
3. Explain deficiency diseases with a suitable table of characteristics of deficiency diseases.
4. Prepare a detailed report on excess eating of fats, protein and vitamins.
5. What should be the diet for a milch and a drought animal? Describe.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS   Time =40 Minutes   Total Marks= 5 x 4 = 20
1. What is food? Write all its components.
2. Write one function each of- Carbohydrate, proteins, fats, Vitamins, minerals and dietary fibres.
3. What is balanced diet? Write its advantage.
4. What are deficiency diseases? Cite three examples of such diseases.


Q.1 Name the major nutrients in our food.

Ans– The major nutrients in our food are- carbohydrate, protein, fats (lipids), vitamins and minerals. Dietary fibres and water are minor nutrients.

Q.2 Name the following:

   (a) The nutrients which mainly give energy to our body.

   (b) The nutrients that are needed for the growth and maintenance of our body.

   (c) A vitamin required for maintaining good eyesight.

   (d) A mineral that is required for keeping our bones healthy.


(a) Carbohydrate and fats (lipids)           

(b) Protein  

(c) Vitamin A                                             

(d) Calcium

Q.3 Name two foods rich in:

    (a) Fats      (b) starch     (c) Dietary fibres     (d) Protein


(a) Fats- Cooking oil, Butter                     

(b) Starch- Rice, Potato

(c) Dietary fibres- Vegetables, Fruits       

(d) Protein- Milk, Eggs

Q.4 Tick (√) the statements that are correct.

   (a) By eating rice alone, we can fulfill nutritional requirement of our body. ( )

   (b) Deficiency diseases can be prevented by eating a balanced diet. ( )

   (c) Balanced diet for the body should contain a variety of food items. ( )

   (d) Meal alone is sufficient to provide all nutrients to the body. ( )


(a) Incorrect (x)                                   

(b) Correct (√)

(c) Correct (√)                                      

(d)Incorrect (x)                                           

Q.5 Fill in the blanks.

   (a) …………is caused by deficiency of Vitamin D.

   (b) Deficiency of …………causes  a disease known as beri-beri.

   (c) Deficiency of Vitamin C causes a disease known as …………

   (d) Night blindness is caused due to deficiency of …… our food.


(a) Rickets                                               

(b) Vitamin B1

(c) Scurvy                                              

(d) Vitamin A    

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